In this post, you will discover how to reset your TCP/IP Stack on WIndows in a single command.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP is one of the most useful and fundamentals protocols that powers the internet and device communication. TCP/IP provides the rules and features used by device communication using packets, network addresses, routing, and more.
TCP/IP is built into most devices to faciliate device communication, either internally or via the internet. However, it can be difficult to troubleshoot is something is not working correctly This is becuase TCP/IP is composed of a lot of moving parts from the cables to the sofware in your router.
Luckily, unless its a hardware problem, you can restore your connectivity on your device by simply performing a reset on the TCP/IP Stack.
How to Reset the TCP/IP Stack on Windows
In Windows, we can reset the TCP/IP stack simply by running a few set of commands. Keep in mind you will require administrative permissions to run the commands successfully.
Start by opening the Command prompt, Windows Terminal, or PowerShell with administrative permissions.
Once in the command prompt, run the command below to reset the TCP/IP Stack:
netsh int ip reset
You should see and output as shown:
PS C:\Users\geekbits> netsh int ip reset Resetting Compartment Forwarding, OK! Resetting Compartment, OK! Resetting Control Protocol, OK! Resetting Echo Sequence Request, OK! Resetting Global, OK! Resetting Interface, OK! Resetting Anycast Address, OK! Resetting Multicast Address, OK! Resetting Unicast Address, OK! Resetting Neighbor, OK! Resetting Path, OK! Resetting Potential, OK! Resetting Prefix Policy, OK! Resetting Proxy Neighbor, OK! Resetting Route, OK! Resetting Site Prefix, OK! Resetting Subinterface, OK! Resetting Wakeup Pattern, OK! Resetting Resolve Neighbor, OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , failed. Access is denied. Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Resetting , OK! Restart the computer to complete this action.
The command will locate and reset all the TCP/IP settings on your machine to the default. This process requires you to restart your machine to apply the changes.
How Does Resetting the TCP/IP Stack Work?
You may be wondering, what happens when I run the command above?
The TCP/IP settings that are used by your device to connect and communicate with other devices are stored locally. Specifically, Windows stores those settings in the registry.
To view the current TCP/IP settings, run the command:
$ Reg Query "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters"
The command above returns the values of the registry key
As the name suggest, this key holds parameters for the TCP/IP settings on your local machine. These include: Hostname, DHCPServer, Domain, PortTracker status, etc.
An example output is as shown:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters DataBasePath REG_EXPAND_SZ %SystemRoot%\System32\drivers\etc Domain REG_SZ ForwardBroadcasts REG_DWORD 0x0 ICSDomain REG_SZ mshome.net IPEnableRouter REG_DWORD 0x0 NameServer REG_SZ SyncDomainWithMembership REG_DWORD 0x1 NV Hostname REG_SZ local Hostname REG_SZ local DhcpNameServer REG_SZ 192.168.1.1 PortTrackerEnabledMode REG_DWORD 0x2 HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Adapters HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\DNSRegisteredAdapters HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\NsiObjectSecurity HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\PersistentRoutes HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Winsock
For graphical users, you can find values in the Registry Editor as:
The reset command also removes the DHCP parameters which holds values as shown:
Reg Query "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dhcp\Parameters"
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dhcp\Parameters ServiceDll REG_EXPAND_SZ %SystemRoot%\system32\dhcpcore.dll ServiceDllUnloadOnStop REG_DWORD 0x1 HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dhcp\Parameters\Options
Therefore, when you run the
netsh int ip reset command, Windows replaces the registry keys shown above with the default values. This ensures that the stack is set to defualt and overwrites any incorrect settings.
In this guide, you discovered a simple command that allows you to reset your TCP/IP Stack on your Windows machine. You also learned what the command does and how to fetch the values of the target Registry keys.
Resetting your Stack is one of the troubleshooting techniques you should attempt when having connection problems.
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